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دانستنی ها - جیمز ژول
یکشنبه 8 اسفند 1389

جیمز ژول

   نوشته شده توسط: Mahabad  Mokriyani    نوع مطلب :بیوگرافی ،

زندگی نامه جیمز ژول

ژول یک فیزیکدان انگلیسی بود که مطالعات خود را به همراه لرد کلوین و جان دالتون (شیمیدان )انجام می داد. آزمایشهای او نشان دادند که تولید گرما همواره با از دست دادن و یا مصرف شدن شکل دیگری از انرژی همراه است و بنابراین وی نتیجه گرفت که گرما نیز باید شکلی از انرژی به شمار آید. نام واحد انرژی را از نام این دانشمند گرفته اند.جیمز پرسکات ژول فیزیکدان انگلیسی برای آزمایشهایی که بر روی گرما انجام داده است معروف است. او کشف کرد که اشکال مختلف انرژی، یعنی انرژی مکانیکی، الکتریکی، و گرما، اساساً یکی هستند و هر شکل انرژی انرژی می‌تواند به شکلهای دیگر آن تبدیل شود. کار ژول به قدری مهم بود که نام او به واحدی از کار یا انرژی داده شده است (ژول)ژول هیچگونه آموزش دانشگاهی رسمی ندیده بود و پست دانشگاهی نیز نداشت. اما با بعشی از دانشمندان برجستۀ زمان خود، از جمله شیمیدان انگلیسی جان دالتون (1844 – 1766 م) و فیزیکدان اسکاتلندی لرد کلوین (1824 – 1907 م) کار کرده بود. یکای اندازه گیری انرژی و کار به افتخار جیمز ژول(1889 -1818 میلادی )، فیزیک دان انگلیسی ژول نامیده شد. ژول برای نشان دادن این موضوع که گرما شکلی از انرژی است ، آزمایش های فراوانی انجام داد آزمایش های ژول و چند دانشمند دیگر یکی از قانون های اصلی علم به نام ((قانون پایستگی انرژی را به وجود آورد.

زندگی نامه ی جیمز ژول

در 24 دسامبر، ژول در سالفورد واقع در لانکشایر انگلستان به دنیا می‌آید. پدرش آبجوساز است. او تحصیلات رسمی اندکی را می‌گذراند. پس از کار در یک آزمایشگاه متصل به آبجوسازی پدرش،‌ به دانشگاه منچستر می‌رود، و در آنجا نزد شیمیدان انگلیسی جان دالتون (1844 – 1766 م) به تحصیل می‌پردازد. ژول تحقیقات اولیه درباره استفاده از الکترومغناطیس در موتورها را کنار می‌گذارد، زیرا معتقد است که بخار شکل قویتری از انرژی است. درباره تولید گرما با الکتریسیته ولتایی را منتشر می‌کند. فرمولی برای مقدار کار لازم برای تولید یک واحد گرما را ارائه می‌کند. این فرمول بر این نظر جدید مبتنی است که گرما شکلی از انرژی است. ژول با استفاده از نظریه‌های موجود بقای اندازۀ حرکت و بقای جرم، راه را بر ارائه قانون بقای انرژی می‌گشاید. مقاله‌ای را دربارۀ نظریه جنبشی گازها منتشر می‌کند، که در آن سرعت حرکت مولکولهای گازها را تخمین زده است. ژول و فیزیکدان اسکاتلندی ویلیام تامسون (1907 – 1824 م‌، که بعداً‌ به لرد کلوین مشهور می‌شود) در‌می‌یابند که اگر به گازی اجازۀ انبساط داده شود، دمای آن افت می‌کند. به این ترتیب فکر ساختن یخچال به وجود می‌آید.

نسخۀ اصلاح شده‌ای از ضریب هم‌ارزی (هم‌ارز مکانیکی گرما) را منتشر می‌کند. در 11 اکتبر، ژول در 70 سالگی در سیل انگلستان می‌میرد.



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چهارشنبه 10 آبان 1396 05:49 ب.ظ
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